Wednesday, 28 September 2016

Diwali/ Deepavali History in Hindi and English/ Why is diwali celebrated

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Diwali is an ancient Indian festival celebrated in autumn (northern hemisphere) or spring (southern hemisphere) every year. It is an official holiday in Fiji, Guyana, India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar,Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. The festival spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness or good over evil, knowledge over ignorance, and hope over despair. Its celebration includes millions of lights shining on housetops, outside doors and windows, around temples and other buildings in the communities and countries where it is observed. The festival preparations and rituals typically extend over a five-day period, but the main festival night of Diwali coincides with the darkest, new moon night of the Hindu Lunisolar month Kartika. In the Gregorian calendar, Diwali night falls between mid-October and mid-November.
Before Diwali night, people clean, renovate, and decorate their homes and offices. On Diwali night, Hindus dress up in new clothes or their best outfit, light up diyas (lamps and candles) inside and outside their home, participate in family puja (prayers) typically toLakshmi – the goddess of fertility and prosperity. After puja, fireworks follow, then a family feast including mithai (sweets), and an exchange of gifts between family members and close friends. Deepavali also marks a major shopping period in nations where it is celebrated.
The name of festive days as well as the rituals of Diwali vary significantly among Hindus, based on the region of India. In many parts of India, the festivities start with Dhanteras (in Northern and Western part of India), followed by Naraka Chaturdasi on second day, Deepavali on the third day, Diwali Padva dedicated to wife–husband relationship on the fourth day, and festivities end with Bhau-beejdedicated to sister–brother bond on the fifth day. Dhanteras usually falls eighteen days after Dussehra.
On the same night that Hindus celebrate Diwali, Jains celebrate a festival of lights to mark the attainment of moksha byMahavira, Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas and some Newar Buddhists also celebrate Diwali remembering Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism.
The word Diwali means rows of lighted oil lamps and sometimes called Quelo. It is actually from Sanskrit Dīpāvalī  meaning "Row of Lamps" or "Spreading of Light".

Diwali/ Deepavali History in English

It is believed that on this day Lord Rama, along with his consort Sita and loyal brother Lakshman was returning to his hometown Ayodhya after 14 long years of exile in the forest. He had just finished battling and overcoming the fierce demon king of Ceylon, Ravana, who had abducted Sita. In this battle he was ably helped by Lord Hanuman and his army of monkeys as well as an army of courageous bears. 
The people of Ayodhya lit lamps in every home to welcome their true King as well as celebrate his victory over Ravana and also the safe return of their Queen Sita. They danced and made merry and lit firecrackers to express their joy over his return. And as a mark of respect and worship the festivities continue every year till this today.  
As another lesser-known story goes, Lord Krishna had battled a demon called Narakasura and emerged victorious. The people of the city were overjoyed and welcomed Krishna back with lamps in their hands. 
Since Rama and Krishna are two of the most popular gods in the Hindu lore, it is only logical that Diwali is celebrated with such pomp and glory.  

Diwali/ Deepavali History in Hindi

भगवान राम की विजय- हिंदू धर्म में मान्‍यता है कि दीपावली के दिन आयोध्‍या के राजा श्री राम ने लंका के अत्‍याचारी राजा रावण का वध किया था, वध करने के बाद वे अयोध्‍या वापस लौटे थे। उनके अयोध्‍या लौटने की खुशी में वहां के निवासियों ने दीप जलाकर उनका स्‍वागत किया था और खुशी मनाई थी। उसी दिन से दीपावली का त्‍यौहार मनाया जाने लगा ।
श्री कृष्ण ने किया था नरकासुर का वध- दीवाली के एक दिन पहले राक्षस नरकासुर ने 16,000 औरतों का अपहरण कर लिया था तब भगवान श्री कृष्ण ने असुर राजा का वध करके सभी औरतों का मुक्‍त किया था, कृष्ण भक्तिधारा के लोग इसी दिन को दीपावली के रूप में मनाते हैं।
विष्णु जी का नरसिंह रुप - एक पौराणिक कथा के अनुसार भगवान विंष्णु ने नरसिंह रुप धारण कर हिरण्यकश्यप का वध किया था इसी दिन समुद्रमंथन के दौरान लक्ष्मी व धन्वंतरि प्रकट हुए थीं।
सिक्‍खों के लिए है खास दिन- इस दिन सभी सिक्‍ख अपने तीसरे गुरू अमर दास जी का आर्शिवाइ लेने के लिए इक्‍ट्ठा होते हैं। 1577 में इसी दिन स्वर्ण मन्दिर का शिलान्यास हुआ था, और इसके अलावा 1619 में कार्तिक अमावस्या के दिन सिक्खों के छठे गुरु हरगोबिन्द सिंह जी को जेल से रिहा किया गया था।
जैनियो के लिए खास दिन- जैन धर्म में aदीपावली के दिन का काफी बड़ा महत्‍व है, इस दिन आधुनिक जैन धर्म की स्‍थापना के रूप में मनाश्‍स जाता है इसके अलावा दीवाली के दिन जैनियो को निर्वाण भी प्राप्त हुआ था।
आर्य समाज की स्‍थापना के रूप में- इस दिन आर्य समाज के संस्‍थापक महर्षि दयानन्द ने भारतीय संस्कृति के महान जननायक बनकर दीपावली के दिन अजमेर के निकट अवसान लिया था। इसके अलावा मुगल सम्राट अकबर के शासनकाल में दौलतखाने के सामने 40 गज ऊँचे बाँस पर एक बड़ा दीप जलाकर लटकाया जाता है। वहीं शाह आलम द्वितीय के समय में पूरे शाही महल को दीपों से सजाया जाता था इस मौके पर हिन्दू और मुसलमान दोनों मिलकर पूरे हर्ष और उल्‍लास के साथ त्‍योहार मनाते थे।

Why is Diwali/ Deepavali Celebrated

1.Goddess Lakshmi’s Birthday: The Goddess of wealth, Lakshmi incarnated on the new moon day (amaavasyaa) of the Kartik month during the churning of the ocean (samudra-manthan), hence the association of Diwali with Lakshmi.
2. Vishnu Rescued Lakshmi: On this very day (Diwali day), Lord Vishnu in his fifth incarnation as Vaman-avtaara rescued Lakshmi from the prison of King Bali and this is another reason of worshipping Ma Larkshmi on Diwali.
3. Krishna Killed Narakaasur: On the day preceding Diwali, Lord Krishna killed the demon king Narakaasur and rescued 16,000 women from his captivity.

4. The Return of the Pandavas: According to the great epic ‘Mahabharata’, it was ‘Kartik Amavashya’ when the Pandavas appeared from their 12 years of banishment as a result of their defeat in the hands of the Kauravas at the game of dice (gambling). The subjects who loved the Pandavas celebrated the day by lighting the earthen lamps.
5. The Victory of Rama: According to the epic ‘Ramayana’, it was the new moon day of Kartik when Lord Ram, Ma Sita and Lakshman returned to Ayodhya after vanquishing Ravana and conquering Lanka. The citizens of Ayodhya decorated the entire city with the earthen lamps and illuminated it like never before.
6. Coronation of Vikramaditya: One of the greatest Hindu King Vikramaditya was coroneted on the Diwali day, hence Diwali became a historical event as well.
7. Special Day for the Arya Samaj: It was the new moon day of Kartik (Diwali day) when Maharshi Dayananda, one of the greatest reformers of Hinduism and the founder of Arya Samaj attained his nirvana.
8. Special Day for the Jains: Mahavir Tirthankar, considered to be the founder of modern Jainism also attained his nirvana on Diwali day.
9. Special Day for the Sikhs: The third Sikh Guru Amar Das institutionalized Diwali as a Red-Letter Day when all Sikhs would gather to receive the Gurus blessings. In 1577, the foundation stone of the Golden Temple at Amritsar was laid on Diwali. In 1619, the sixth Sikh Guru Hargobind, who was held by the Mughal Emperor Jahengir, was released from the Gwalior fort along with 52 kings.
10. The Pope’s Diwali Speech: In 1999, Pope John Paul II performed a special Eucharist in an Indian church where the altar was decorated with Diwali lamps, the Pope had a ‘tilak’ marked on his forehead and his speech was bristled with references to the festival of light.


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